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For Paper II of UGC NET – Department of Psychology

Day I – SESSION I

Date: 04-05-23

Time: 3:00 PM – 4:30 PM

Resource person: Dr. Nupur Sinha, Head, Dept. of Psychology

Topics covered: Paradigms of Psychology

In a gist:

Paradigms are important to be studied to understand and articulate beliefs about the nature of reality. A paradigm is a belief system and theoretical framework with assumptions about ontology, axiology, epistemology, research methodology, methods and reflectivity. In other words, it is our way of understanding the reality of the world and studying it. In psychological studies, determination of knowledge paradigm is essential. Based on these six aspects, western paradigms are of four types namely realism (positivism and post positivism), relativism (interpretivism), critical paradigm (social constructivism) and pragmatism. The significant eastern paradigms on psychological knowledge include Vedas, Upanishads, Yoga, Bhagavad Gita, Buddhism, Sufism, Confucianism etc. Modern day research is mostly based on the western paradigms. Understanding these paradigms helps to orient one’s thinking about the research problem, its significance and how one can approach it so as to contribute to its solution.

All these paradigms and their application and relevance in modern understanding of psychology, particularly research was explained in the class. It was majorly focused on understanding the sequence and the need that led of emergence of various knowledge paradigms. The paradigms were taught with respect to the components such as ontology, epistemology, methodology etc. In between questioning and examples from day-to-day life made the session more comprehensive and interactive. Overall, it was a very helpful session from the point of view of UGC NET exam.

 Day I – SESSION II

Date: 04-05-23

Time: 5:00 PM – 6:30 PM

Resource person: Dr. Medha, Assistant Professor, Department of Psychology, Patna Women’s College

Topics covered: Memory and Forgetting

In a gist:

Memory and Forgetting Memory processes: Encoding, Storage, Retrieval Stages of memory: Sensory memory, Short-term memory (Working memory). Long-term Memory (Declarative – Episodic and Semantic; Procedural).Types of forgetting, nature of forgetting, forgetting curve, Henry Molaison case study, False and photographic memory, Zeigarnik effect

Day II – SESSION I

Date: 05-05-23

Time: 3:00 PM – 4:00 PM

Resource person: Dr Medha

Topics covered: Attention

In a gist:

Attention is the process of selectively responding to a stimulus. From a large number of stimuli that are available in external world, attentional processes limit reception of stimuli selectively. These processes filter selectively for further processing. Attention is a process that is carried out through cognitive abilities and helped by emotional and behavioural factors to select something out of the various stimuli present in one’s environment and bring it in the centre of one’s consciousness in order to perceive it clearly for deriving the desired end. Attention can be of four types based on one’s needs and circumstances namely sustained attention, selective attention, alternating attention and divided attention. Further, on the basis of will and effort of an individual, attention can be of three types namely voluntary attention, involuntary attention and habitual attention. There are three models that are associated to selective attention. These are models of attention by Donald Broadbent (1958), Treisman’s Attenuation model (1964) and Deutsch and Deutsch (1963; further extended by Norman in 1968). They are also referred to as bottleneck models of attention because they explain how one cannot attend to all sensory input at one time in the conscious level.

The forms and models of attention were elaborately explained in the session and were substantiated with daily life examples. The different experiments and important terminologies underlying all the models of attention were also discussed. The comparison between all the three models along with their similarities were explained. The resources relevant to the topic were also suggested. Multiple choice questions related to the topic were discussed in the session. Overall, it was a fruitful session specifically targeting UGC NET examination.

Day II – SESSION II

Date: 05-05-23

Time: 5:00 PM – 6:30 PM

Resource person: Dr. Nupur Sinha, Head, Dept. of Psychology

Topics covered: Research Methodology

Research: Meaning, Purpose, and Dimensions. Research problems, Variables and Operational Definitions, Hypothesis, Sampling. Ethics in conducting and reporting research.

Paradigms of research: Quantitative, Qualitative, Mixed methods approach Methods of research: Observation, Survey [Interview, Questionnaires], Experimental, Quasi-experimental, Field studies, Cross-Cultural Studies, Phenomenology, Grounded theory, Focus groups, Narratives, Case studies, Ethnography.

Day III – SESSION I

Date: 06-05-23

Time: 3:00 PM – 4:30 PM

Resource person: Dr Nupur Sinha

Topics covered: Biological basis of behaviour

In a gist:

The biological processes of the brain can explain human behaviours. Behaviour, in all its forms has a biological base. The stimuli in the form of various sensory experiences are received by our sensory systems known as receptors. The nervous system receives input through an array of sense organs (for example, the eye, ear, nose etc) and transforms the information into neural processes through a procedure called sensation. Sensation is a human’s detection of stimuli. Detection of sensation allows he human body to be aware of changes that occur in the environment or inside the body. These senses make the central nervous system to produce reaction for the stimuli and maintain body homeostasis. The sensory processes include vision, hearing, smell, touch and taste. The structure the sense organs is important to be understood in order to understand their functioning. Neurotransmitters are the body’s chemical messengers that can have both excitatory and inhibitory functions. There are different types of neurotransmitters including serotonin, dopamine, acetylcholine, norepinephrine, GABA, histamine etc. These are involved in various functions of the body including muscle action, learning, memory, alertness, wakefulness, attention, mood regulation, sleep, eating, arousal etc. biological basis of motivation says that motivational level is regulated by neural pattern recognition events. The biological motives are embedded in the physiological state of body. There are many such biological motives like hunger, thirst, sleep, sex, pain avoidance etc. emotions too can be explained in terms of biology and neurology. The limbic system, autonomic nervous system and reticular activating system all interact to assist the body in experiencing and processing emotions.

All the concepts, important terminologies, structure of the sense organs and their functions, the disorders associated with their improper functioning, etc were explained thoroughly in the session along with proper diagrams. It was a very informative discussion covering a wide range of topics in a short span of time. Overall, it was a session of great value from the exam point of view.

Day III – SESSION II

Date: 06-05-23

Time: 5:00 PM – 6:45 PM

Resource person: Dr. Medha, Assistant Professor, Department of Psychology, Patna Women’s College

Topics covered:   Personality and Motivation

Determinants of personality: Biological and socio-cultural approaches to the study of personality: Psychoanalytical approach, Neo-Freudian, Social learning, Trait and Type, Cognitive, Humanistic, Existential, Transpersonal psychology. Kohlberg’s theory of Moral development.